Consequently teams of researchers from different backgrounds will be needed to provide a broad and balanced interpretation. Conducting and co-ordinating research spanning diverse environments The increasing diversity of the sociocultural and economic environment in which research is being conducted, implies that international marketing researchers will need to develop the capability to conduct and co-ordinate research spanning a brand range of environmental contexts and research questions.
In essence, researchers will need to be able to tailor research questions, and adapt research instruments and administration procedures to different environments, as well as to interpret or generalize results at a pan-cultural or global level.
This goes beyond geographic co-ordination of multi-country studies, translation and development of multilingual questionnaires or research instruments, and requires skills in designing multi-site studies that include a common core and purpose, while at the same time addressing country-specific issues Douglas and Craig, At a first level, skills in designing multi-site studies in diverse environments will increasingly be required.
Here, although the key research questions are clearly identified and common across sites, attention needs to be paid to how constructs are operationalized, research instruments designed, and sampling and data collection conducted at each site. The definition of product categories may, for example, differ as well as brand availability, the nature of the retail environment, or more insidiously, the socio-cultural context of consumption.
Constructs or definitions used in one context are not necessarily appropriate in another. Research instruments, data collection or sampling procedures may incorporate bias, requiring reformulation or adaptation to ensure meaningful results Craig and Douglas, Use of a team incorporating members from different cultural backgrounds and sites helps to strike a balance between the need for local input and adaptation to local site conditions with the need for comparability and equivalence across sites.
Researchers from each site should participate in the early stages of research design and in the interpretation of data and results, rather than merely acting as local implementers of a centrally designed study. They can then provide input in the formulation of research questions and the design of the research instrument as well as in sampling and data collection procedures.
Equally, local researchers are best placed to interpret findings from their sites in terms of local contextual factors, and to explain local anomalies or differences. At a higher or "supra-country" level, skills and capabilities in designing and managing a research program which spans multiple, diverse environments are likely to become increasingly critical.
A research program might, for example, cover a product business or industry worldwide. If the product business is at different stages of the product life-cycle in different regions or market conditions differ substantially, as, for example, detergents, different types of research or information will need to be collected.
Developing and using new tools In addition, to developing the capabilities to conduct research spanning diverse environments, international marketing researchers also need to create and make imaginative and thoughtful use of new approaches to understand the changing market place.
As qualitative research techniques advance and mature, they offer increasing promise as a means of understanding and interpreting trends in diverse cultural contexts. Qualitative research provides insights and understanding of the consumption and purchase context and the underlying determinants of behavior, as well as a means of interpreting the results of quantitative research and predicting future trends.
As a consequence, qualitative techniques are especially helpful in probing the contextual embedding of attitudes and behavior, providing deep understanding of situational and contextual factors, and providing inputs into interpreting observed differences between countries and cultures Cooper, In addition, as qualitative techniques are often observational or unstructured, they require minimal cognitive skills, and are particularly suited to research in emerging markets.
They can also provide insights into underlying or hidden motivations as well as probing future trends and scenarios. Videotaping of consumers in purchase or consumption situations can provide a rich source of information relating to the role of contextual and situational factors on consumer behavior and response patterns in different cultures and contexts.
Videotaping of consumers in an instore environment provides a wealth of information about visual cues and their role in product evaluation not easily obtained from other forms of data collection Restall and Anton, In some cases, instore videotaping can be used to prompt or elicit responses from consumers.
In emerging markets, videotaping of consumer usage and consumption behavior often provides deeper understanding of how consumers use products and how these are embedded in the cultural fabric of society, as well as perceptions and associations of foreign products and brands.
Projective and elicitation techniques such as collages, picture completion, analogies and metaphors, psychodrawing and personalization can be used to encourage respondents to project their private and unconscious beliefs and personal and subjective associations. Collages, were, for example used in a study of teenagers, worldwide to explore their feelings about the future. This revealed significant differences between countries especially in terms of the degree of pessimism and hedonism Thiesse, Equally, brand perceptions can be explored through personalization, association techniques or analogies, to probe culturally embedded images and associations that vary across cultures.
Focus groups and extended creativity groups can also be used to explore underlying motivations, feelings and points of view.
These techniques can be used to screen new product ideas and concepts or develop ideas for a new positioning or advertising theme or to examine future trends. Use of such techniques is likely to become increasingly critical in the 21st century as managers seek to identify new products or ideas that will appeal to cross-national segments or consumers worldwide.
Their unstructured character facilitates identification of ideas, concepts and trends, which are truly universal, rather than reflecting the influence of any specific culture or country.
Incorporating technological advances into research design and methodology At the same time, international marketing researchers will need to incorporate the latest technological developments in data collection and dissemination into the research design. These enable researchers to dramatically reduce the time required to collect data across geographic distances as well as substantially enhancing and enriching the type of stimuli that can be used in collecting data from international markets.
It is, however, important to recognize that use of sophisticated technological techniques is subject to certain limitations in international markets, due either to the development of the technological infrastructure or the technological sophistication of respondents.
They provide faster, more accurate methods of data collection providing direct input of response and facilitating steering of data collection based on response. Techniques such as CATI and CAPI can also be used to centrally administer and organize data collection from international samples, subject to telephone and computer penetration in different countries as well as use of a common language or availability of software to automatically translate questionnaires.
As these technologies evolve and advance, they also provide new innovative ways to present stimuli and collect data particularly suited to international research issues. Multimedia CAPI makes possible the presentation of highly complex stimuli and facilitates obtaining consumer reactions to video and audio stimuli Thomae, Developments in virtual reality CAPI will heighten the realism in stimulus portrayal and expand the range of topics on which marketing research can meaningfully be conducted Needel, Equally, as the Internet evolves, it offers the potential to dramatically change the way in which much international marketing research is conducted, both in providing ready access to secondary data, and in providing a new means of collecting primary data.
Rather than visiting a traditional research library, the marketer can have virtually instant access to data from traditional sources as well as sources that are only available on the Internet.
The Internet can also be used to collect primary data, either by tracking visitors to a Web site, or through administering electronic questionnaires over the Internet.
To the extent that web sites are increasingly likely to be accessed by users worldwide, information on an international sample can be gathered.
Behavior at the site can be tracked revealing interest relating to the products and services or information offered, as well as response to promotional material or offers. The Internet can also be used to collect data in a more systematic fashion that is closer in character to more traditional marketing research practice.
Subject to the availability of suitable Internet sampling frames, questionnaires can be administered directly over the Internet. At the core of this is understanding the root question that needs to be informed by market research. There is typically a key business problem or opportunity that needs to be acted upon, but there is a lack of information to make that decision comfortably; the job of a market researcher is to inform that decision with solid data.
You might even go as far as to mock up a fake report, with hypothetical data, and ask your audience: In this step you will first determine your market research method will it be a survey, focus group, etc.? You will also think through specifics about how you will identify and choose your sample who are we going after?
This is also the time to plan where you will conduct your research telephone, in-person, mail, internet, etc. Once again, remember to keep the end goal in mind—what will your final report look like? Your choice of research instrument will be based on the nature of the data you are trying to collect. There are three classifications to consider:. Exploratory Research — This form of research is used when the topic is not well defined or understood, your hypothesis is not well defined, and your knowledge of a topic is vague.
Exploratory research will help you gain broad insights, narrow your focus, and learn the basics necessary to go deeper. Common exploratory market research techniques include secondary research, focus groups and interviews. The last stage is the report preparation and presentation. The entire project should be documented in a written report and the results and major findings must be presented.
The findings must be in a comprehensible format so that they can be readily used in the decision making process. In addition, an oral presentation should be made to management using tables, figures, and graphs to enhance clarity and impact. For these reasons, interviews with experts are more useful in conducting marketing research for industrial firms and for products of a technical nature, where it is relatively easy to identify and approach the experts.
This method is also helpful in situations where little information is available from other sources, as in the case of radically new products. Primary data is sourced by the researcher for the specific purpose of addressing the research problem.
On the other hand, secondary data is collected for some purpose other than the problem at hand. This data includes information made available by business and government sources, commercial marketing research firms, and computerized databases.
Secondary data is an economical and quick source of background information. Information, industry experts, and secondary data may not be sufficient to define the research problem. Sometimes qualitative research must be undertaken to gain a qualitative understanding of the problem and its underlying factors. Qualitative research is unstructured, exploratory in nature, based on small samples, and may utilize popular qualitative techniques such as focus groups group interviews , word association asking respondents to indicate their first responses to stimulus words , and depth interviews one-on-one interviews which probe the respondents' thoughts in detail.
Other exploratory research techniques, such as pilot surveys with small samples of respondents, may also be undertaken. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article needs more links to other articles to help integrate it into the encyclopedia.
This is why marketing research is so fundamentally important to the international marketing process, for whilst it cannot help a manager reduce risk to the point of zero, it can assist him in making a proper decision based on knowledge and not on assumptions.
2. International Marketing Research Process a. International Marketing Research Categories. International marketing research is the systematic design, collection, recording, analysis, interpretation, and reporting of information pertinent to a particular marketing decision facing a .
Marketing research is "the function that links the consumers, customers, and public to the marketer through information — information used to identify and define marketing opportunities and problems; generate, refine, and evaluate marketing actions; monitor marketing performance; and improve understanding of marketing as a process. is often 5/5(1). INTERNATIONAL MARKETING RESEARCH PROCESS:market structure, Implementing the research plan International Marketing Business Marketing.
International marketing requires a lot of research. This is so that you learn everything you can about the country in which you plan to do business in. However, conducting research is a . Marketing is the process of building understanding and communication between the supplier and the customer. Sales takes this process one step further, and can be characterized as the process of fulfilling the needs of customers with a satisfactory product or service, consummated by the exchange of money.