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C. Creating an Outline

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Writing Your Outline

Introduction
What Is Included in a Research Paper Outline?
Step-by-Step

Can you use a procedure for your science fair project that is similar to an experiment that has been done before? If you can obtain this information, your project will be more successful. As they say, you don't want to reinvent the wheel! If these reasons sound to you like the reasons we gave for doing background research, you're right!

The research paper is simply the "write-up" of that research. Many science experiments can be explained using mathematics. As you write your research paper, you'll want to make sure that you include as much relevant math as you understand. If a simple equation describes aspects of your science fair project, include it. As you read the information in your bibliography, you'll want to take notes. Some teachers recommend taking notes on note cards. Each card contains the source at the top, with key points listed or quoted underneath.

Others prefer typing notes directly into a word processor. No matter how you take notes, be sure to keep track of the sources for all your key facts. The best way to speed your writing is to do a little planning. Before starting to write, think about the best order to discuss the major sections of your report. Generally, you will want to begin with your science fair project question so that the reader will know the purpose of your paper. What should come next?

Ask yourself what information the reader needs to learn first in order to understand the rest of the paper. A typical organization might look like this:. When you write your research paper you might want to copy words, pictures, diagrams, or ideas from one of your sources. It is OK to copy such information as long as you reference it with a citation.

If the information is a phrase, sentence, or paragraph, then you should also put it in quotation marks. A citation and quotation marks tell the reader who actually wrote the information. For a science fair project, a reference citation also known as author-date citation is an accepted way to reference information you copy. Citation referencing is easy. Simply put the author's last name, the year of publication, and page number if needed in parentheses after the information you copy.

Place the reference citation at the end of the sentence but before the final period. A comma separates the page number or numbers from the year" Bloggs, , p. In that case, the first publication would have an 'a' after the publication year, the second a 'b', and so on.

The reference will look like this" Nguyen, b. When you work hard to write something, you don't want your friends to loaf and just copy it.

Every author feels the same way. Plagiarism is when someone copies the words, pictures, diagrams, or ideas of someone else and presents them as his or her own.

When you find information in a book, on the Internet, or from some other source, you MUST give the author of that information credit in a citation. If you copy a sentence or paragraph exactly, you should also use quotation marks around the text. The surprising thing to many students is how easy it is for parents, teachers, and science fair judges to detect and prove plagiarism.

So, don't go there, and don't make us try to hunt you down! Here is information on how to format your research paper. BODY — This is where you present your arguments to support your thesis statement. Remember the Rule of 3, i. Begin with a strong argument, then use a stronger one, and end with the strongest argument for your final point. Explain why you have come to this particular conclusion.

Organize all the information you have gathered according to your outline. Critically analyze your research data. Using the best available sources, check for accuracy and verify that the information is factual, up-to-date, and correct. Opposing views should also be noted if they help to support your thesis. This is the most important stage in writing a research paper. Here you will analyze, synthesize, sort, and digest the information you have gathered and hopefully learn something about your topic which is the real purpose of doing a research paper in the first place.

You must also be able to effectively communicate your thoughts, ideas, insights, and research findings to others through written words as in a report, an essay, a research or term paper, or through spoken words as in an oral or multimedia presentation with audio-visual aids.

Do not include any information that is not relevant to your topic, and do not include information that you do not understand. Make sure the information that you have noted is carefully recorded and in your own words, if possible. Plagiarism is definitely out of the question. Document all ideas borrowed or quotes used very accurately. As you organize your notes, jot down detailed bibliographical information for each cited paragraph and have it ready to transfer to your Works Cited page.

Devise your own method to organize your notes. One method may be to mark with a different color ink or use a hi-liter to identify sections in your outline, e. Group your notes following the outline codes you have assigned to your notes, e. This method will enable you to quickly put all your resources in the right place as you organize your notes according to your outline. Start with the first topic in your outline. Read all the relevant notes you have gathered that have been marked, e.

Summarize, paraphrase or quote directly for each idea you plan to use in your essay. Use a technique that suits you, e. Mark each card or sheet of paper clearly with your outline code or reference, e. Put all your note cards or paper in the order of your outline, e.

If using a word processor, create meaningful filenames that match your outline codes for easy cut and paste as you type up your final paper, e. Before you know it, you have a well organized term paper completed exactly as outlined. The unusual symbol will make it easy for you to find the exact location again. Delete the symbol once editing is completed. Read your paper for any content errors.

Double check the facts and figures. Arrange and rearrange ideas to follow your outline. Reorganize your outline if necessary, but always keep the purpose of your paper and your readers in mind.

Use a free grammar and proof reading checker such as Grammarly. Is my thesis statement concise and clear? Did I follow my outline? Did I miss anything?

Are my arguments presented in a logical sequence? Are all sources properly cited to ensure that I am not plagiarizing? Have I proved my thesis with strong supporting arguments? Have I made my intentions and points clear in the essay? Re-read your paper for grammatical errors. Use a dictionary or a thesaurus as needed. Do a spell check. Correct all errors that you can spot and improve the overall quality of the paper to the best of your ability.

Get someone else to read it over. Sometimes a second pair of eyes can see mistakes that you missed. Did I begin each paragraph with a proper topic sentence? Have I supported my arguments with documented proof or examples? Any run-on or unfinished sentences? Any unnecessary or repetitious words? Varying lengths of sentences? Does one paragraph or idea flow smoothly into the next?

Any spelling or grammatical errors? Quotes accurate in source, spelling, and punctuation? Are all my citations accurate and in correct format? Did I avoid using contractions? Did I use third person as much as possible? Have I made my points clear and interesting but remained objective? Did I leave a sense of completion for my reader s at the end of the paper? For an excellent source on English composition, check out this classic book by William Strunk, Jr.

Place yourself in the background, Revise and rewrite, Avoid fancy words, Be clear, Do not inject opinion, Do not take shortcuts at the cost of clarity, … and much more. The Elements of Style was first published in There is also a particular formatting style you must follow.

There are several formatting styles typically used. APA American Psychological Association style is mostly used to cite sources within the field of social sciences. Instead of providing individual recommendations for each publishing format printed, online, e-books etc. You should necessarily ask your instuctor which formatting style is required for your paper and format it accordingly before submitting. All formal reports or essays should be typewritten and printed, preferably on a good quality printer.

Read the assignment sheet again to be sure that you understand fully what is expected of you, and that your essay meets the requirements as specified by your teacher.

Know how your essay will be evaluated. Proofread final paper carefully for spelling, punctuation, missing or duplicated words. Make the effort to ensure that your final paper is clean, tidy, neat, and attractive. Aim to have your final paper ready a day or two before the deadline.

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An outline provides a structural framework for a research paper and encourages the writer to stay on track. Create the outline just before writing, once a topic has been selected and research has been conducted. A thorough, well-crafted outline will make the writing process faster and smoother.

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But to make sure your paper is complete, consult your instructor for specific parts they wants to be included in your research paper. Sample outlines for research papers will follow. Sample outlines for research papers will follow.

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Setting up an outline involves organizing your essay on paper according to an introduction, body with main points and conclusion. Outlining an essay takes a minimum of 20 minutes and requires paper and a pencil, though research notes may also be necessary. Sep 27,  · How to Write a Research Paper. The introduction should set out what you intend to discuss and prove in the research paper, and outline the approaches per topic or heading section. Include the information you found through your research in your paper to back up your thesis statement. For more help writing a research paper, like how to 79%().

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If you do no know how to write an outline in APA format check out some basic criteria. Order writing an outline in APA format at adsense-info.ga most of the time students are not aware of the intricacies involved in writing a research paper or an outline in APA format. Go to Page Setup. Clicking this sub menu will bring a pop-up window. C. Creating an Outline. and a conclusion paragraph), don’t feel constrained by that model. LINKS: WriteExpress – Writing an Effective Outline; Outline for Writing a Research Paper; University at Albany – How to Write an Outline; Sample Outline; Sign up for a free EasyBib account to receive our newsletters, updates, and more!.