Randomly select subjects and randomly assign them to groups. Validate all instruments used. Develop data collection procedures, conduct a pilot study, and refine the instrument.
State the null and alternative hypotheses and set the statistical significance level of the study. Conduct the research experiment s. Analyze all data, conduct appropriate statistical tests and report results. The primary difference between true designs and quasi designs is that quasi designs do not use random assignment into treatment or control groups since this design is used in existing naturally occurring settings.
Groups are given pretests, then one group is given a treatment and then both groups are given a post-test. This creates a continuous question of internal and external validity, since the subjects are self-selected. The steps used in a quasi design are the same as true designs.
An ex post facto design will determine which variables discriminate between subject groups. Formulate the research problem including identification of factors that may influence dependent variable s. Identify alternate hypotheses that may explain the relationships. Identify and select subject groups.
Collect and analyze data Ex post facto studies cannot prove causation, but may provide insight into understanding of phenomenon. The NGT is a group discussion structuring technique. It is useful for providing a focused effort on topics. The NGT provides a method to identify issues of concern to special interest groups or the public at large.
Ewert noted that the NGT is a collective decision-making technique for use in park and recreation planning and management. The NGT is used to obtain insight into group issues, behaviors and future research needs. The final list of ideas becomes the focus of further research and discussion. These ideas can also be used to generate a work plan for a formal strategic planning process, a basis for a survey or interview, or the development of a scale. The delphi method was developed to structure discussions and summarize options from a selected group to: Although the data may prove to be valuable, the collection process is very time consuming.
When time is available and respondents are willing to be queried over a period of time, the technique can be very powerful in identifying trends and predicting future events. The technique requires a series of questionnaires and feedback reports to a group of individuals. A new questionnaire is prepared that includes the new material, and the process is repeated until a consensus is reached.
The reading below is a research study that used the delphi technique and content analysis to develop a national professional certification program.
Richard Krueger , describe the focus group as a special type of group in terms of purpose, size, composition, and procedures. A focus group is typically composed of seven to twelve participants who are unfamiliar with each other and conducted by a trained interviewer. These participants are selected because they have certain characteristics in common that relate to the topic of the focus group.
The researcher creates a permissive environment in the focus group that nurtures different perceptions and points of view, without pressuring participants to vote, plan, or reach consensus. The group discussion is conducted several times with similar types of participants to identify trends and patterns in perceptions.
Careful and systematic analysis of the discussions provide clues and insights as to how a product, service, or opportunity is perceived. A focus group can be defined as a carefully planned discussion designed to obtain perceptions on a defined area of interest in a permissive, nonthreatening environment.
It is conducted with approximately seven to twelve people by a skilled interviewer. The discussion is relaxed, comfortable, and often enjoyable for participants as they share their ideas and perceptions. Group members influence each other by responding to ideas and comments in the discussion. Focus group interviews typically have four characteristics: Other types of group processes used in human services delphic, nominal, planning, therapeutic, sensitivity, or advisory may have one or more of these features, but not in the same combination as those of focus group interviews.
Cognitive and spatial mapping information provides a spatial map of: All types of recreation activities and travel involve some level of environmental cognition because people must identify and locate recreation destinations and attractions.
Cognitive mapping allows recreation resource managers the opportunity to identify where users and visitors perceive the best recreation areas are located. It is important to understand user perceptions in order to manage intensive use areas in terms of maintenance, supervision, budgeting, policy development and planning. Cognitive maps grid the research site into zones.
The zones identify existing geographic, climatic, landscape, marine resources, and recreation sites. Researchers collect data at recreation areas beach, campground, marina, trailhead, etc.
During the data collection process, random sites, days, times, and respondents every nth should be chosen to increase the reliability and generalizability of the data. Observational research is used for studying nonverbal behaviors gestures, activities, social groupings, etc. Specify the question s of interest reason for doing the study. Are the observational categories clearly described? What is being observed and why? Design the measurement instruments checklists, categories, coding systems, etc.
Is the study designed so that it will be 'Valid i. Train observers in the use of the instruments and how to conduct observational research.
Do a pilot test to a test the actual observation procedure and b check the reliability of the categories of observation using at least two independent observers. Revise the procedure and instruments in light of the pilot test results.
If substantial changes are made to the instrument, run another pilot test to make sure changes will work under the field conditions. Collect, compile, and analyze the data and interpret results. Casual observation is normally done like unstructured interviews.
Data mining is commonly used in both qualitative and quantitative research. Secondary data provides data which provides a framework for the research project, development of research question s , and validation of study findings. Bureau of Labor Statistics - Extensive information on such things as employment, unemployment, types of employment, income, etc.
State Employment Departments - Number employed by industry, projected levels of employment growth, available jobs skills and skill shortages Federal Land Management - National Parks, historic sites, scenic areas, forests by acres, budget and visitation rates.
Number of alcohol and drug abuse counselors, number of family counselors. Number and cases of child abuse, spouse abuse, desertions, child adoptions rate. Newspapers - Scanning local newspapers is an excellent means to become better acquainted with a community and its principal actors as well as the issues that have been of greatest local concern Content Analysis.
It is used to quantitatively studying mass media. The technique uses secondary data and is considered unobtrusive research. The first step is to select the media to be studied and the research topic. Then develop a classification system to record the information. The techniques can use trained judges or a computer program can be used to sort the data to increase the reliability of the process.
Content analysis is a tedious process due to the requirement that each data source be analyzed along a number of dimensions. It may also be inductive identifies themes and patterns or deductive quantifies frequencies of data. The results are descriptive, but will also indicate trends or issues of interest. Meta-analysis combines the results of studies being reviewed. It utilizes statistical techniques to estimate the strength of a given set of findings across many different studies.
This allows the creation of a context from which future research can emerge and determine the reliability of a finding by examining results from many different studies. Researchers analyze the methods used in previous studies, and collectively quantify the findings of the studies. Meta-analysis findings form a basis for establishing new theories, models and concepts. Identification of the research problem.
Conduct of a literature review of identified studies to determine inclusion or exclusion. Then relational, associational, correlational, or ex post facto designs may be most effective. Then experimental or quasi-experimental are likely to yield the most useful results. Descriptive research designs are most effectively applied to studies aimed at gathering additional information, learning more about an area of interest, or becoming more familiar with a topic.
Researchers interested in identifying the prevalence or incidence of a disability or in describing the distribution and characteristics of a group of patients may adopt a descriptive research design. Typically, a researcher gathers information from a large group of participants either by mail, interactive online site, telephone interview, or personal interview.
A survey does not investigate relationships between variables, patient-specific characteristics, or generalize findings to all members of a population. In other words, the purpose of survey research is not to establish cause and effect relationships. Most individuals have completed a survey of some type, whether a public opinion questionnaire, customer service form, or community investment poll.
Developmental studies generally follow a group of participants over time and document changes in status. These types of studies may be referred to as trend, cohort, or panel designs. In most cases, researchers collect data at specific points in time which are used as a basis of comparison and analysis. Narrative or documentary-style reports may result from this type of design, but conclusions cannot be applied to other members of the target population.
Developmental studies are useful in describing phenomena longitudinally and may be used as the foundation for further investigation.
The purpose of this type of research is the same as pursued by survey and developmental designs, but generally involves much smaller sample sizes. Rather than gathering information from a large group of people, as in survey designs, the researcher is interested in gaining deeper insights into a fewer number of subjects.
This form of inquiry typically involves personal interview or direct observation throughout the data collection process. Examples of this type of design may be a study based on the relationships and interpersonal dynamics of a specific family, documenting the experiences of a small group of patients with traumatic brain injury in a rehabilitation facility, or observing the interactions of selected toddlers in a preschool setting.
The purpose of relational or associational research is to identify the relationship or association between two or more variables. The purpose is not to establish cause and effect but to:. There are two types of correlational studies; concurrent and predictive. Concurrent correlational studies involve assessment of the relationship between characteristics that were collected by the researcher at the same point in time.
Predictive correlational studies may be utilized when a researcher is interested in determining whether knowing a previously documented characteristic or set of characteristics can lead to the prediction of a later characteristic or set of characteristics. This type of design is often utilized when it is not possible to control the experience, exposure, or influences which may affect participants.
The purpose of experimental or quasi-experimental research is to establish a cause and effect relationship between two variables. The researcher deliberately manipulates a treatment or independent variable and measures how it affects the behavior or reaction of subjects the dependent variable. In order for this research design to be appropriately utilized, the researcher must be able to:.
As may be apparent from the description, this type of design is very difficult to utilize when working with human subjects. In order for the drug to be approved for distribution to the general public, it is necessary to establish its effectiveness. However, there exists the potential for harm to individuals who participate in the project, whether receiving the drug or not.
While this type of study occurs, and must occur if advances are to be realized, there are many safeguards, supervisory and administrative requirements, and limitations imposed upon studies involving human subjects.
Ex-post facto research is systematic empirical inquiry in which the scientist does not have direct control of independent variables because their manifestations have already occurred or .
Ex post facto research is ideal for conducting social research when is not possible or acceptable to manipulate the characteristics of human participants. It is a substitute for true.
Ex post facto study or after-the-fact research is a category of research design in which the investigation starts after the fact has occurred without interference from the researcher. Ex post facto design is a quasi-experimental study examining how an independent variable, present prior to the study in the participants, affects a dependent variable.
Ex post facto research IntroductionWhen translated literally, ex post facto means ‘from what is done afterwards’. In the context of social and ed 5/5(6). Psychology definition for Ex Post Facto Research Design in normal everyday language, edited by psychologists, professors and leading students. Help us get better.