Originally, the idea of a culture was tied to the notion of ethnicity and geographic location e. That is, we can study the "culture" of a business or defined group e. Ethnography is an extremely broad area with a great variety of practitioners and methods. However, the most common ethnographic approach is participant observation as a part of field research. The ethnographer becomes immersed in the culture as an active participant and records extensive field notes.
As in grounded theory, there is no preset limiting of what will be observed and no real ending point in an ethnographic study. Phenomenology is sometimes considered a philosophical perspective as well as an approach to qualitative methodology. It has a long history in several social research disciplines including psychology, sociology and social work. Phenomenology is a school of thought that emphasizes a focus on people's subjective experiences and interpretations of the world.
That is, the phenomenologist wants to understand how the world appears to others. Field research can also be considered either a broad approach to qualitative research or a method of gathering qualitative data.
As such, it is probably most related to the method of participant observation. The field researcher typically takes extensive field notes which are subsequently coded and analyzed in a variety of ways. Grounded theory is a qualitative research approach that was originally developed by Glaser and Strauss in the s. The self-defined purpose of grounded theory is to develop theory about phenomena of interest. But this is not just abstract theorizing they're talking about.
Instead the theory needs to be grounded or rooted in observation -- hence the term. Grounded theory is a complex iterative process. Discuss ways in which the limitations can be overcome. Seeks to find the universal nature of an experience and can provide a deeper understanding. The themes and meanings of an experience emerge from the data.
The data is not fit into a statistical test that confines or restricts the interpretation. Helps to understand a lived experience and brings meaning to it. This may contribute to the development of new theories, changes in policies or changes in responses. Results may help expose misconceptions about an experience. It may be a means to have the voices of the participants heard which may prompt action or at least challenge pre-conceived notions and complacency.
The research participants must be able to articulate their thoughts and feelings about the experience being studied. It may be difficult for them to express themselves due to language barriers, age, cognition, embarrassment and other factors. Phenomenology requires researcher interpretation, making phenomenological reduction an important component to reduce biases, assumptions, and pre-conceived ideas about an experience or phenomenon.
Researcher bias is difficult to determine or detect. Results are not statistically reliable, even with a larger sample size. It does not produce generalizable data. It may be difficult to gain access to participants. Presentation of findings may be difficult. The subjectivity of the data may lead to difficulty in establishing reliability and validity. Policy makers may give less credibility to phenomenological study. Gathering data and data analysis may be time consuming and laborious.
The descriptive phenomenological psychological method. Journal of Phenomenological psychology , 43 1 , The theory, practice, and evaluation of the phenomenological method as a qualitative research procedure. Journal of phenomenological psychology , 28 2 ,
Through the collection of data the researcher must also identify the second element of phenomenological research, of “locating the universal nature of an experience” (Campbell, Introductive Methods to Qualitative Research: Course Notes, n.d., p. 3).
A qualitative "approach" is a general way of thinking about conducting qualitative research. It describes, either explicitly or implicitly, the purpose of the qualitative research, the role of the researcher(s), the stages of research, and the method of data analysis. here, four of .
1. METHODS OF QUALITATIVE RESEARCH: PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH Charisse Gennevieve Ballad Ralph Julius Bawalan 2. AT A GLANCEWhereas a narrative study reports the life of a single individual, a phenomenological study describes the . Qualitative research involves examining non-numerical data in-depth. One type of qualitative research is phenomenological research, which involves trying to understand the universal experience of a phenomenon through interviews with subjects. There are many strengths to phenomenology, including that it offers a rich and detailed view of the human experience and that the results emerge from the data.
Groenewald PHENOMENOLOGICAL RESEARCH DESIGN 3 International Journal of Qualitative Methods 3 (1) April, conducting phenomenological research. Therefore, although I do not regard this article authoritative, I offer it as a guide to spare other researchers some agony. The theory, practice, and evaluation of the phenomenological method as a qualitative research procedure. Journal of phenomenological psychology, 28 (2), Hycner, R. H. ().